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Sample Postgres Setup

These deployment instructions used for reference while building cardano-db-sync tool, with the scope being ease of set up, and some tuning baselines for those who are new to Postgres DB. It is recommended to customise these as per your needs for Production builds.


You'd find it pretty useful to set up ZFS on your system prior to setting up Postgres, to help with your IOPs throughput requirements. You can find sample install instructions here. You can set up your entire root mount to be on ZFS, or you can opt to mount a file as ZFS on "${CNODE_HOME}"

Install PostgreSQL Server⚓︎

Execute commands below to set up Postgres Server

# Determine OS platform
OS_ID=$(grep -i ^ID_LIKE= /etc/os-release | cut -d= -f 2)
DISTRO=$(grep -i ^NAME= /etc/os-release | cut -d= -f 2)

if [ -z "${OS_ID##*debian*}" ]; then
  wget --quiet -O - | sudo apt-key add -
  RELEASE=$(lsb_release -cs)
  echo "deb [arch=amd64] ${RELEASE}"-pgdg main | sudo tee  /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pgdg.list
  sudo apt-get update
  sudo apt-get -y install postgresql-14 postgresql-server-dev-14 postgresql-contrib libghc-hdbc-postgresql-dev
  sudo systemctl restart postgresql
  sudo systemctl enable postgresql
elif [ -z "${OS_ID##*rhel*}" ]; then
  sudo yum install -y postgresql-server postgresql-server-devel postgresql-contrib postgresql-devel libpq-devel
  sudo postgresql-setup initdb
  sudo systemctl restart postgresql
  sudo systemctl enable postgresql
  echo "We have no automated procedures for this ${DISTRO} system"

Create User in Postgres⚓︎

Login to Postgres instance as superuser:

echo $(whoami)
# <user>
sudo su postgres

Note the returned as the output of echo $(whoami) command. Replace all instance of in the documentation below. Execute the below in psql prompt. Replace and PasswordYouWant with your OS user (output of echo $(whoami) command executed above) and a password you'd like to authenticate to Postgres with:

ALTER USER <user> PASSWORD 'PasswordYouWant';
Type exit at shell to return to your user from postgres

Verify Login to postgres instance⚓︎

export PGPASSFILE=$CNODE_HOME/priv/.pgpass
echo "/var/run/postgresql:5432:cexplorer:*:*" > $PGPASSFILE
chmod 0600 $PGPASSFILE
psql postgres
# psql (14.0)
# Type "help" for help.
# postgres=#

Tuning your instance⚓︎

Before you start populating your DB instance using dbsync data, now might be a good time to put some thought on to baseline configuration of your postgres instance by editing /etc/postgresql/14/main/postgresql.conf. Typically, you might find a lot of common standard practices parameters available in tuning guides. For our consideration, it would be nice to start with some baselines - for which we will use inputs from example here. You might want to fill in some sample information as per below to fill in the form:

Option Value
DB Version 14
OS Type Linux
DB Type Online Transaction Processing System
Total RAM 64 (or as per your server)
Number of CPUs 8 (or as per your server)
Number of Connections 200
Data Storage HDD Storage

In addition to above, due to the nature of usage by dbsync (restart of instance does a rollback to last saved ledger-state snapshot), and data retention on blockchain - we're not affected by loss of volatile information upon a restart of instance. Thus, we can relax some of the data retention and protection against corruption related settings, as those are IOPs/CPU Load Average impacts that the instance does not need to spend. We'd recommend setting 3 of those below in your /etc/postgresql/14/main/postgresql.conf:

Parameter Value
wal_level minimal
max_wal_senders 0
synchronous_commit off

Once your changes are done, ensure to restart postgres service using sudo systemctl restart postgresql.